Conceived and developed in Coventry, U.K., John Kemp Starley’s Rover Safety bicycle was a result of ‘solving the problem of the cycle’, and focusing ‘attention to the perfection and manufacture of the Rover bicycle.’ Speech to Society of Arts 1898.
J.K. Starley's Rover Safety Bicycle for the first time brought together the key component's of the modern bicycle, a combination that's still used frequently today:
Chain drive to rear wheel
Changeable sprocket at rear wheel, so gearing could be varied
Equal sized wheels
1885 Rover Safety Bicycle. Image copyright Science and Society Picture Library, Science Museum, London
By 1886, Rover-style bicycles were already giving the bicycle trade a huge boost, attracting thousands of new riders - both male and female.
London’s Daily News noted that a new industry has sprung up employing nearly 50,000 people, with 200 manufacturers and over 500,000 bicycles and tricycles in the U.K. The article also noted that that the industry no longer catered for the wealthy, but had developed into an international concern with bustling factories serving the demands of a broader population that looked to the bicycle for utility as well as recreation. (Bicycle: the history, Herlihy, (2004), p241).
By the late 1880’s the Rover pattern had prevailed as the universal bicycle style and triggered an unprecedented world-wide demand that cumulated in the big boom (1890's) (Herlihy, p225). This bike boom helped greatly the emancipation of women - increasing their independence, self-reliance and range of economic & social opportunities.
By the mid twentieth century the bicycle was the most important form of personal transport in the world.
ROVER SAFETY BICYCLE
Describing the methodology that produced his design, J.K. commented ‘The main principles which guided me in making this machine were to place the rider at the proper distance from the ground; to connect the cranks with the driving wheel in such a way that the gearing could be varied as desired; to place the seat in the right position in relation to the pedals … to place the handles in such a position in relation to the seat that the rider could exert the greatest force upon the pedals with the least amount of fatigue.’